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Active Ingredient: Clomiphene

Clomid is an antiestrogenic medication used in the treatment of infertility.

Clomid instructions for use

Clomid is a drug that is used in gynecological practice to treat female infertility. It belongs to the group of antiestrogens. This means that it blocks receptors (nerve endings) in the ovaries and hypothalamus, which entails a decrease in estrogen production. Also, this drug stimulates follicular maturation, ovulation itself and the level of estradiol in the blood.

What are estrogens

This is a group of steroidal female sex hormones that are produced mainly in the ovaries. Men also have a low estrogen content in the blood, which is produced by the testes and adrenal glands (in both sexes). Estrogens are divided into three types: estrone, estriol and estradiol. Clomid has a particular effect on blood estradiol levels.

How does Clomid work

Clomid contains the main active ingredient – clomiphene, which blocks receptors that perceive estrogens in the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls the body’s hormonal background). As a result, the production of gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing), which activate the maturation and intrasecretory (endocrine) function of the follicle in the ovaries, is enhanced. As a result of all the above processes, the use of the Clomid drug leads to a significant increase in the level of estradiol in the blood.

Causes and symptoms of estrogen decline

The main reason that the level of estrogen in the blood of a woman is reduced is the lack of activity of the ovaries that produce them. As the body ages, their deficiency is also noted. An important reason can be various pathological changes on the part of the pituitary gland.

Sometimes there is a decrease in estrogen levels in women who engage in professional sports, when physical activity on the body is excessive. This phenomenon occurs due to the fact that testosterone (male hormone) is being intensely produced.

Another important point is the presence or absence of adipose tissue. It has been proven that estrogens are also produced by fat cells. This means that exhaustion or sudden weight loss is extremely dangerous for the female body, namely for its reproductive ability.

Symptoms arising of estrogen deficiency

In adolescence, a lack of estrogen leads to insufficient development of secondary sexual characteristics, a decrease in the size of the uterus, late onset and malfunction of the menstrual cycle.

In reproductive age, a decrease in estrogen levels provokes a decrease in sexual desire, sharp mood swings, various violations of the duration and other indicators of the menstrual cycle. At the same time, memory, working capacity decreases, insomnia appears and the skin condition (its elasticity, color, turgor) worsens. Stretch marks, pigmentation, inflammatory rashes appear on the skin. Female infertility and dysfunctional uterine bleeding may occur.

Clomid drug release form

This drug is released in tablet form. Each tablet contains 50 milligrams of clomiphene. Clomid is intended for oral administration, that is, through the mouth.

Indications for use of the drug Clomid

According to the instructions for use of the drug, it is prescribed for such conditions:

  • infertility provoked by the lack of ovulation;
  • galactorrhea – spontaneous pathological outflow of milk from the breast, which is not associated with feeding the baby and occurs as a result of neoplasms of the pituitary gland
  • amenorrhea – a prolonged absence of menstruation;
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia);
  • androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) – insufficient production of steroid hormones by the sex glands;
  • polycystic ovary;
  • oligospermia in men, a condition in which the quality and activity of sperm cells decreases;
  • disruption of the pituitary gland.

How to take Clomid

The patterns of use of the drug are different and depend on the pathology. As indicated in the instructions for use of the drug, to stimulate the ovulation process, Clomid is prescribed in a dose of 50 milligrams once a day, at bedtime. The course of taking the drug begins on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle and lasts five days. In those situations when there is no menstruation at all, you can start taking the drug at any time prescribed by the doctor. With inefficiency and the absence of ovulation, the dose of Clomid can be increased to 150 milligrams per day, or the course of treatment can be extended to ten days. There is a special indication in the instructions, which suggests that the total course dose of the drug should not exceed 1 gram.

How to determine if Clomid is effective

It is necessary to determine the presence of ovulation. To do this, there are several fairly simple techniques that a woman can perform herself at home. This is a temperature method or basal temperature measurement, an ovulation test method. Additionally, hormone levels (luteinizing, progesterone) are determined.

In those cases when the menstrual cycle has improved, but pregnancy does not occur, it is recommended to conduct a second course of taking this drug in the same therapeutic dosage.

Contraindications to taking Clomid

  • Renal or hepatic insufficiency, which is associated with the elimination of the drug.
  • Genital neoplasm.
  • Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology.
  • Inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus (endometriosis).
  • Neoplasm or decreased pituitary function.
  • Ovarian failure due to increased levels of prolactin in the blood.
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • Pregnancy.

Side effects of the drug Clomid

During the reception of Clomid, the appearance of various manifestations from the side of internal organs is possible.

  • Allergic manifestations: vasomotor disorders, allergic dermatitis, rarely rashes.
  • Manifestations of the nervous system: drowsiness, dizziness, headache, depression, insomnia, hyper excitability, slowing down the speed of motor and mental reactions.
  • Possible manifestations of the genitourinary system: an increase in the size of the ovary, cystic change in the ovaries, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, polyuria, increased urination, the occurrence of pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Other possible adverse reactions include flushing of the face, alopecia (hair loss), chest pain (mammary glands), decreased visual acuity, weight gain.

Special instructions regarding the drug Clomid

Taking this drug increases the chance of a multiple pregnancy.

The development of the effective action of the drug is only possible if there is a sufficient amount of estrogen in the patient. The lower their level, the less effective Clomid.

Treatment with antiestrogen drugs, like any other, should occur under the close supervision of a gynecologist. Periodically, a determination of the functioning of the ovaries and other special examinations, including the vaginal, are performed.

During the course of therapeutic treatment with Clomid, it is recommended to be especially careful when working with mechanisms that carry a potential danger, and when driving a car.